franz joseph i of austria
Franz Joseph, portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1865. Augustine’s Church,’ Vienna. Hungarian domination eventually turned Serbia, inhabited by fellow Slavs, into the Dual Monarchy’s mortal enemy, leading to World War I. Franz Joseph was the eldest son of Archduke Francis Charles and Sophia, daughter of King Maximilian I of Bavaria. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Rudolf, the heir apparent, shot himself in a suicide love pact in 1889. After the ‘Austro-Hungarian Compromise,’ the introduction of dual monarchy left the Czech people without the recognition of Bohemian state rights. He was also the third-longest-reigning ruler in the history of Europe, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. Franz Joseph’s father was the third, but the second surviving son … A more profound influence, however, was that of his wife, the duchess Elizabeth of Bavaria. Franz Joseph is also credit for starting World War I when Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. This mood became more threatening after 1851, when the government withdrew the promise of a constitution, given in 1849 under the pressure of the revolutionary troubles. The victories gained by the Austrian Army in the south, moreover, could not prevent the loss of Venetia, so that Austria found itself expelled from Italy as well. On February 18, 1853, Franz was stabbed in the neck by Hungarian nationalist János Libény. It gained no friends for Austria among the Western powers but lost considerable goodwill that Tsar Nicholas I had earlier harboured for Franz Joseph. In June 1848, he joined his family in Innsbruck where he first met Elisabeth, who later became his wife. As the emperor considered it incompatible with the army’s honour to cede a province without fighting, war with Italy broke out despite the agreement. Two factions immediately emerged; one supporting Greater Germany and the other supporting Lesser Germany. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne and Franz succeeded him as the new Emperor of Austria. The foundation of neoabsolutism spelled the defeat of Charles Albert of Sardinia, who had rebelled against Austria in 1849. Finally, on October 6, 1908, Franz signed the proclamation and annexed Bosnia–Herzegovina. After Schwarzenberg’s death (1852), Franz Joseph decided not to replace him as prime minister and took a greater part in politics himself. He ruled over the kingdoms from 1848 to 1916, until his death. In the ‘Budapest Conventions’ of 1877, it was declared that Russia would annex Bessarabia and Austria–Hungary would remain neutral. Moreover, the prime minister of Sardinia, Camillo Benso, included the French forces in his army to drive Austria out of Italy. The appointment of the Saxon premier, Beust, as Austrian prime minister in 1867 shows that initially Franz Joseph was once again unwilling to accept the decision. Thus, one group favored a “Greater Germany” that included Austria and another group favored a “Lesser Germany” without Austria. This gave rise to a contest between Austria and Prussia, which Prussia won after winning the Seven Weeks War. He acceded to the throne following the abdication of the throne by Emperor Ferdinand (his uncle) as a plan to end Hungary’s Revolution of 1848. In home affairs, however, Schwarzenberg’s harsh rule and the formation of an intolerant police apparatus evoked a latent mood of rebellion. Franz Joseph married Elisabeth of Bavaria in April 1854 in Vienna, with whom he fathered two children, Sophie and Rudolf. The congress of princes at Frankfurt in 1863, for which the reigning heads of all German states assembled with the sole exception of the king of Prussia, was a high point in Franz Joseph’s life. Unreconciled to this settlement, Franz Joseph adopted a foreign policy that prepared the way for a passage at arms with Italy and Prussia, by which he hoped to regain for Austria its former position in Germany and Italy, as it had been established by Metternich in 1814–15. He also received baptism by fire while in Italy and took up his responsibility really well. Franz Joseph was married to his cousin Elisabeth of Bavaria, who was regarded as the most beautiful princess in Europe. Russia agreed to the annexation of Bosnia–Herzegovina by Austria–Hungary. During that time, his family moved to Innsbruck, in Tyol, because of the revolution in Vienna. This resulted in outrage among the people, who took to the streets to protest, as their state rights had been ignored. He died on November 21, 1916, after reigning for 68 long years. Because the emperor was not so strong-minded, Franz Joseph’s mother decided to bring up his son as the future leader and emperor, with the main focus on diligence, devotion, and responsibility… Between 1859 and 1860, financial crisis made the Austrian government cut down on its expenses for the army. Following this, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz suggested giving the throne to a young, passionate, and determined ruler. The assassination served as the foundation of the war that was declared against Serbia. After a week of delivery of the letter, on July 28, Austria–Hungary declared war against Serbia. The imperial family moved back to Vienna after the situation went back to normal and after the Italians were defeated in Custoza. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Joseph_I_of_Austria, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_1898.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_of_Austria_1910_old.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_I_of_Austria.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_of_Bohemia_1861.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:L%C3%A1szl%C3%B3_Portrait_of_Franz_Joseph_I_1899.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_1865.jpg. Andrássy, appointed imperial foreign minister after Beust’s dismissal in 1871, inaugurated the policy of close collaboration with Germany that later became the cornerstone of Franz Joseph’s foreign policy. When revolution broke out in the Austrian Empire, Franz Joseph was proclaimed emperor at age 18 in December 1848, after Ferdinand’s abdication. Franz Joseph died on November 16, 1916, in Schonbrunn Palace from pneumonia. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Franz Joseph was born during the reign of his grandfather Emperor Franz I.Franz’s eldest son and successor Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, hydrocephalus, neurological problems, and a speech impediment and although he married in 1831, the marriage was probably never consummated and therefore no children were expected.
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